Having the chemical formula CO2, the carbon dioxide is also used as a coolant as probably known. The pressurized carbon dioxide liquid is allowed to expand and following the ideal gas law, this is accompanied by a drop in temperature, enough to cause a change of phase into a solid. Immediately after this takes place, the obtained solid crystals are redirected into the cut zone by either external nozzles or through-the-spindle delivery, to provide temperature controlled cooling of the cutting tool and work piece. The most important role in the application of CO2 as a coolant is played by the ChilAire system. Existing CNC machines can be retrofitted with this safe and environmentally friendly coolant approach. In applications such as milling or drilling tool life and throughput have been improved substantially; especially in high temperature alloys such as titanium, 4140, steels and plastics.